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Showing posts with label Apparel Engineering. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Apparel Engineering. Show all posts

Monday, 7 September 2020

Fabric cutting । Methods of Fabric Cutting in Garment Industry

Fabric cutting is one of the preparatory processes of garments manufacturing. It is done to separate different parts of a garment from the lays of fabrics according to pre-designed marker with various size ranges placed on the lay. After the cutting operation, the cut pieces are sorted out, numbered and bundled as per different sizes. 


Fabric cutting in Garment Industry

Thursday, 3 September 2020

Saturday, 8 August 2020

Clothing Comfort

Clothing Comfort
Clothing comfort is a very complex subjective perception, which relates to the interactions between fabrics, climatic, human physiological and psychological variables. Clothing comfort is a state of satisfaction indicating physiological, psychological and physical balance among the person.

Monday, 3 August 2020

GSP, MGA, Quota

GSP

The Generalized System of Preferences is a U.S. trade program designed to promote economic growth in the developing world by providing preferential duty-free entry for up to 4,800 products from 129 designated beneficiary countries and territories. GSP was instituted on January 1, 1976, by the Trade Act of 1974.

Fusing । The controlling factors of fusing

Fusing?

Fusing is a process of introducing interlining materials/sheet in-between the parts of the garment. Fusible Interlining sheet is coated with thermoplastic polymer resin and it is used to ensure a fixed shape, good strength and stability of a garment.

Sunday, 21 June 2020

A to Z of Apparel Merchandising

Proto sample order enquiry:  This is the first stage in which the buyer will enquire with the Merchant/merchandiser about the new order.

Forwarding tech pack:  When the order enquiry has been done, then the buyer sends a “Tech Pack” or technical specification sheet to the Merchant/ merchandiser. Tech pack includes all the details of a style and which includes the items as follows:
  • Product style design
  • Measurements
  • Fabric
  • Style code
  • Colour code
  • Embellishment details, etc.

Wednesday, 3 June 2020

Sustainability in the Apparel Industry: Product Diversification

Sustainability in the Apparel Industry: Product Diversification

Bangladesh Apparel Industry makes a significant contribution to the national economy by creating generous employment opportunities especially innumerable uneducated women of the country and reducing poverty through socio-economic development. 20 million people depend on this industry and 10 million are directly and/or indirectly are employed through this sector. This sector is helping people by changing their lives and living standards. Bangladesh is the world’s second-largest Readymade Garment (RMG) exporter, just behind China. Country’s 84% of exports come from the RMG sector, and the Textile & Apparel sector contributes around 20% to Bangladesh’s GDP. Bangladesh plans to get the middle-income country status by 2021, and RMG sector is going to play a major role in it. For more please click on Textile and RMG industry in Bangladesh.


Top 4 Challenges in the Apparel Manufacturing Industry- Texpedia

As the days go by, consumers are becoming more fashion-conscious. Consequently, apparel production is facing the new more challenges. The major challenges apparel production faces or will face are mentioned below- 

Challenges in Apparel Production

Tuesday, 2 June 2020

Garment washing। Texpedia

Garment washing

There was a time when only indigo dyed garment items were processed in washing as a finishing operation. The fashion is moving so fast and everyone is looking for fashion items. As the demand for fashion items increases day by day, various new processes have been discovered. Garment washing is one of them which is not confined only to the indigo-dyed items anymore. Garment washing is a fancy world of creativity. A variety of designs can be made in the washing section. Both the dyed and undyed garment items are processed to create a new look. In fact, the garment items are sent to the washing section after sewing is done and imparted various types of finishing effects by different types of washing and garment dyeing processes. Garment washing has gained a lot of attention due to the fact that it provides a variety of designs and creates fashion items that ensure comfort issues as well.

Sunday, 31 May 2020

Application of Computer in the Garments Industry

Now it is the age of science and technology. You cannot find a single sector, where a computer is not being used. Accordingly, the textile and garment industry has been modernized with the versatile applications of computer. The main applications of computer in the garment industry are as below-

Inspection systems for Apparel Industry। Common Garment Tests

Different inspection systems are being used at different phases of garment manufacturing in order to ensure the right quality of the products as per customers' expectations. 

Interlining in Garment Manufacturing

Interlining?

Interlining is a sheet of fusible or non-fusible material that is used in-between the layers of fabric to give a certain shape and strength. For example, interlining is used in the collars, cuffs, waistbands to ensure the shape. Right interlining should be carefully selected to avoid any types of damage to the garments/parts of the garments. Interlining may be introduced to the garment parts either by sewing or fusing depending on the types of interlining being used. 

Methods of Garment Fusing

Fusing?

The fusing of interlinings in garment manufacturing is a very important process. Fusing is a process of introducing interlining materials/sheet in-between the parts of the garment. Fusible Interlining sheet is coated with thermoplastic polymer resin and it is used to ensure a fixed shape, good strength and stability of a garment.

Saturday, 30 May 2020

Fabric cutting । Methods of Fabric Cutting in Garment Industry

Fabric cutting is one of the preparatory processes of garments manufacturing. It is done to separate different parts of a garment from the lays of fabrics according to predesigned marker with various size ranges placed on the lay. After the cutting operation, the cut pieces are sorted out, numbered and bundled as per different sizes. 

Saturday, 23 May 2020

RMG Business terms & definitions

AQL = Acceptable Quality Level
GSP = Generalized System of Preferences
CBL = Center Back Line
GATT = Generalized Agreement on Tariffs and Taxes
CFL = Center Front Line
MFA = Multi-Fiber Arrangement
FOB = Free On Board
VAT = Value Added Tax
GOB = Government Of Bangladesh
TUF = Technology Upgradation Fund
GPT = Garments Performance Test
ETP = Effluent Treatment Plan
C & F = Cost & Freight
UNIDO = United Nation International Development Organization
CIF = Cost, Insurance and Freight
P/C = Polyester + Cotton
CMT = Cost of Making with Trimming
T/C = Tetron + Cotton
CMO = Cost of Making Order
FAS = Free Alongside Ship
NSA = No Seam Allowance
CNF = Clearing & Forwarding
BL = Bill of Lading
EU = European Union
CO = Certificate of Origin
EPI = Ends Per Inch
L/C = Letter of Credit
PPI = Picks Per Inch
BTB L/C = Back to Back L/C
UNEC = United Nations Economic and Development Commission
UD = Utilization Declaration
TU = Trade Union
UP = Utilization Permission
UNDP = United Nations Development Program
AAQC = American Association of Quality Control
ILO = International Labor Organization
LCA = Letter of Credit Authorization
IFTU = International Federation of Trade Union
PSI = Pre-Shipment Inspection
IMF = International Monetary Fund
XL = Extra Large (Size)
GB = Great Britain
L = Large (Size)
GM = General Manager
M = Medium (Size)
AGM = Assistant General Manager
S = Small (Size)
PO = production Officer
CAD = Computer Aided Design
PM = Production Manager
CAM = Computer Aided Manufacturing
CEO = Chief Executive Officer
PTS = Primary Textile Sector
ISO = International Organization for Standardizations
GDP = Growth Domestic Product

Bangladesh RMG Industry

Bangladesh RMG Industry makes a significant contribution to the national economy by creating generous employment opportunities especially innumerable uneducated women of the country and reducing poverty through socio-economic development. Bangladesh is the world’s second-largest Readymade Garment (RMG) exporter, just behind China. Country’s 83% of exports come from the RMG sector, and the textile and Apparel sector contributes around 20% to Bangladesh’s GDP. Bangladesh plans to get the middle-income country status by 2021, and RMG sector is going to play a major role in it.

Saturday, 16 May 2020

Merchandising: Role & Responsibility of an apparel merchandiser

The activity of trying to sell goods or services by advertising them or displaying them attractively.
or
According to American Marketing Association, merchandising encompasses "planning involved in marketing the right merchandise or service at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantities, and at the right price.”
or 
The planning and promotion of sales by presenting a product to the right market at the proper time, by carrying out organized, skillful advertising, using attractive displays, etc.
or 
Merchandising is executing an order from receiving to shipment through proper following-up the in-between processes.
or 
The process of identifying and understanding what target customers want and providing their desired textile products to them in a certain price and lead-time by making a communication bridge between the customer and the company. 

So merchandising process involve of at least three parties: 
  1. Company/Supplier/Vendor: who are making the products for buyers. 
  2. Customer/Buyer: Who place the order to the vendors or who are targeted by company with the help of merchandiser. 
  3. Merchandiser: merchandiser places his position between the above two parties.

Merchandising Teams:

Merchandising can be structured in numerous ways but more commonly, it is structured on the basis of -
1. Customers 
2. Products 
3. Geography

On the Basis of Customers: 

Merchandisers are supposed to retain the customers and they are their representatives, so the division based on customers is very logical from this point of view. 
  • Merchandiser A: taking care of “IKEA” 
  • Merchandiser B: Taking care of “WALMART” 
  • Merchandiser C: Taking care of “LI &FUNGs” 
  • Merchandiser D: Taking care of “TESCO”


On the basis of Products:

  • Yarn Team,
  • Fabric Team,
  • Production Execution Team. 
or 
  • Kids wear Team,
  • Girls Wear Team,
  • Boys wear Team, 
  • Ladies wear Team,
  • Mens wear Team,
  • etc.

On the basis of Geography:

  • European Buyers' Team,
  • USA Buyers' Team,
  • Asian Buyers' Team,
  • etc.


Merchandising Functions?

  • Study of fashion trend and fashion forecast in association with fashion designer; 
  • Studying potential target customer; 
  • Sourcing information about the customer and his profile; 
  • Sourcing information about the product, its categories, styles, specifications, assortments, size details etc. ; 
  • Sourcing foreign buyer; 
  • Negotiating orders, cost calculation, pricing, securing orders through master LC; 
  • Sourcing fabrics, trims and accessories; 
  • Placing order for the fabrics, trims and accessories materials and making regular follow-up; 
  • Getting samples made, making costing and pricing of the same; 
  • Rectifying samples if necessary; 
  • Completing the whole sampling procedure as per customer requirement; 
  • Getting buyer approval of the sample; 
  • Estimating lead time; 
  • Production and shipment planning; 
  • Keeping track of raw material arrival, production cycle, and organizing inspections;
  • Monitoring production and product quality; 
  • Making regular liaison with the customer and keeping him update on order & production status; 
  • Follow up of customer instruction in respect of packing and packaging; 
  • Arranging product delivery on time; 
  • Follow up with the customer in respect of shipment and informing him shipment details; 
  • Coordinate with shipping/ export department; 
  • Arranging payment against export order; 
  • Quick response follow up in respect of any of the buyer’s query. 


Role and Responsibility of Merchandiser?

  • Securing order, sourcing materials and constant follow-up with the customer; 
  • Coordinate with all the concerned departments of manufacturing factory, supplier organization and the buyer. 
  • Needs to cut a balance between quality, lead time, delivery schedule and price of the merchandise; 
  • Organize the purchase of materials, follow-up of production, costing, quality & delivery schedule under tight deadlines. 

Tuesday, 12 May 2020

Textile Testing Lab

Testing 

To evaluate how something works under certain established methods or test standards. Textile testing is to check its properties under certain conditions in a standard environment prescribed as per Test standards. 

Types of Testing?


Destructive testing: The testing which breaks the test specimen and goes as waste after testing is called destructive testing. For example, tensile test, compression test, bending test etc. 

Nondestructive testing: The testing in which test materials do not go as waste after testing is called non-destructive testing method. For example, thermal and electrical conductivity testing.

Why testing?

- To check the quality and suitability of raw material;
- To monitor the production (process control);
- To assess the quality of final product;
- To investigate the faulty materials;
- To set standards or benchmarks;
- For R&D (research and development) purpose;
- For new product development.

Testing laboratories play an indispensable role in the execution of a garment order. Various types of standardized testing are required by the customers in every stage of product development like the yarn stage, fabric stage, garment stage, etc. In addition, quality executives carry out various tests at each level to ensure the quality of the material. These labs are divided into the following three categories from the point of functionality.
1. In-house Lab
2. Buying house Lab
3. 3rd Party Testing Lab

In-house Lab: 

Every manufacturing plant has the testing laboratory facilities along with the production unit. The main function of this type of lab is to ensure the right quality of the items like yarn, fabric, garments etc. Yarn count, composition, hairiness, twist factor etc. are tested and maintained to a standard limit for the yarn manufacturing plant. Fabric structure, dimensional stability, weight, spirality, standard shade and colourfastness properties, etc. are tested for the fabric manufacturing plant and the testing lab at garments check the quality of stitches, seams, and different measurements, etc.

Buying house Lab: 

This is actually the customer nominated lab up to their standards. Fabric technologist working at the buying house execute various types of test sought by the ultimate buyers. The vendors send the items to the buying house for approval and of course, they send after doing the in-house tests. Despite that buying house lab test is to ensure everything is as per the standards as mentioned in the PO or other technical package. After testing, checking and evaluating, buying-house gives approval to the vendors to proceed. Sometimes, items should be sent to the original buyers for approval for special issues. 

3rd Party Lab: 

Sometimes, customers do not have the testing setup and they then nominate some well-recognized and standard laboratory to work on behalf of the customers. These labs are termed as the 3rd Party Lab. This type of lab is designed only to test and providing certificates. While issuing an order, customers seek some standard tests done at every stage along with the products from vendors. Yarn count, fabric structure, weight, spirality, colourfastness, presence of hazardous materials, embellishment durability test, overall appearance test of the garments are the most common tests done in the 3rd party testing lab. Another very important function is doing an inspection after the production and they issue gate pass to ship the items to the customers. SGS, Intertek, TUVSUD, Bureau Veritas are some of the most renowned and reliable 3rd party testing labs.
Reference: A Practical Guide to Textile Testing by K. Amutha (Woodhead Publishing)

Botanical Names of Cotton Fibre

1. Gossypium Herbaceum:  - Fibre length: 20mm – 26mm  - Producing country: India, China, Bangladesh  3. Gossypium Arboreum: - F...