Fabric Production Techniques

There are different types of fabric production techniques such as weaving, knitting, braiding, non-weaving (for example, felting) and so on. In this article, we are going to introduce with these fabric production techniques in brief and later we will discuss the knitting technique in details. 

Weaving: Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.

Fabric production technique: Weaving
Knitting: Knitting is a process of fabric forming by the intermeshing the loops of yarns. When one loop is drawn through another, loops are formed in the horizontal or vertical direction.

Fabric production technique: Knitting
Intertwining or Braiding: Braiding is the interlacing three or more yarns or fabric strips, forming a flat or tubular narrow fabric. It is used as trimming and for belts and is also sewn together to make hats and braided rugs.

Fabric production technique: Braiding
Non-woven: Nonwoven fabric is a fabric-like material made from long fibres, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. Non-woven textiles are those which are neither woven nor knit, for example, felt.

Fabric production technique: Non-woven

Knitting:
Knitting is a process of fabric forming by the intermeshing the loops of yarns. When one loop is drawn through another, loops are formed in the horizontal or vertical direction.

Types of Knitting: There are two of knitting-
(i) Weft knitting
(ii) Warp Knitting

Fabric production technique: Knitting

Weft knitting: Weft Knitting is a method of forming a fabric in which the loops are made in a horizontal way from a single yarn and intermeshing of loops take place in a circular or flat form on across wise basis.

Warp Knitting: Warp Knitting is a method of forming a fabric in which the loops are made in a vertical way along the length of the fabric from each warp yarns and intermeshing of loops take place in a flat form of lengthwise basis.

Besides, knitted fabrics can be classified based on the knitting machine used. The machine-based classification may be as below-
1. Warp Knitting:
(a) Tricot warp knitting machine,
(b) Crochet warp knitting machine,
(c) Raschel warp knitting machine.
Warp knitted fabrics are used mostly for the non-apparel purpose like mosquito net, fishing net, power net, mesh etc.

2. Weft Knitting:
(a) Circular Knitting machine: small dial machine for socks, and large dial machine for S/J, D/J, Fleece, Pique etc.
(b) Flatbed knitting machine: Hand-driven and power-driven.
Hand-driven flatbed knitting machine is used for limited design, low production, not suitable for integrated garment while power-driven machine for any design, high production, suitable for the integrated garment.

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