Applications of computer in the dyeing and printing industry

Applications of computer in the dyeing and printing industry

Introduction:

In the global trade of textile material, the efficient working of textile manufacturing and processing machines have great importance. The quantitative and qualitative product is produced by applying technically developed features in machineries which assist in increasing the trading of textile of particular industry but also assist their marketing growth.

For an example if the dye solution level in the trough of the dye padded is reduced it is sensed by the pressure transducer which gives activation signal to the dosing pump of the dye liquor due to which the dye level is maintained and chances of color variation in the batch decreases and continuous production can be obtained.

    Computer applications in Textile Dyeing sector


    The technical features developed in modern textile processing machineries by using automation, electronic controlling system & computer assistance. The application of digital controlling system in textile processing machines has the advantages.
    • Increase in quality and productivity of the processing material.
    • Process control parameters are controlled by it, also chances of breakdown in machine also reduces.

    Application of computer in dyeing processing

    Application of computer in dyeing processing can mainly be categorized as bellow:
    • Applications of computer in testing equipment for wet processing.
    • Applications of computer in process machineries for wet processing.
    • Applications of computer in process management for wet processing.
    • Applications of computer in overall process management for wet processing.

    Computer aided testing equipment in wet Processing

    It is the engineering application of computers for the inspection of quality of the products. While designing a textile product, the requirements must be defined followed by development process and acceptance testing.

    Computer Aided Quality Assurance, CAQA:

    The Computer Aided Quality Assurance, CAQA should ensure tests and procedures are properly carried out and evaluated and if any modifications in the product are investigated when necessary, should generate technical and management system reports, produce statistical reports through relevant data, measures to improve the quality of fabrics by reducing cost and bringing about better utilization of textile raw materials.

    CAQA includes:
    • Measuring equipment management
    • Goods inward inspection
    • Vendor rating
    • Attribute chart
    • Statistical process control and
    • Documentation

    There are some testing equipment’s that are used in wet processing laboratory they are...
    • Spectrophotometer
    • Data color
    • Buffer Calculator
    • Different kinds of computer aided fastness tester.

    Spectrophotometer:

    Spectrophotometer usually used in textile to measure the efficiency of dyeing and k/s value ect.it is used in the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength. It is more specific than the general term electromagnetic spectroscopy in that spectrophotometry deals with visible light, near-ultraviolet, and near-infrared, but does not cover time-resolved spectroscopic techniques.

    Spectrophotometry involves the use of a spectrophotometer. A spectrophotometer is a photometer that can measure intensity as a function of the light source wavelength. Important features of spectrophotometers are spectral bandwidth and linear range of absorption or reflectance measurement.

    Buffer calculator: 

    It is used to calculate the amount of acids/alkali required to maintain a proper buffer solution for the use.

    Different kinds of computer aided fastness tester:

    Fastness properties of fabrics should be tested accurately for the production. For that computer assistance are taken for better results. Few testers are as bellow:
    • AATCC Rotary Crock meter,
    • Automated pilling (automated pilling ICI Pilling Testing Machine (TSE-A010)) and
    • Abrasion tester
    • Automated percpirometer etc.

    Computer aided process machineries in wet Processing:

    In textile wet processing there are many pre-treatments processes are carried out before sending the fabric to the dyeing and printing sections.as an examples singeing where optimum temperature required, scouring, bleaching, mercerization where ample amount of tension required which can be maintained by applying automation or computer assistance. After than those fabrics sent to dyeing and printing section.

    For dyeing sections:

    There are some dyeing machines which has software’s that work independently after the command that is made by the operator. Digital monitor with information of …
    • M: L ratio
    • Chemical ratio
    • Machine speed
    • Temperature
    • Pressure etc. criteria can be maintained for better dyeing effect.

    For printing section:

    Photoshop: Before the application of printing on fabrics there is a necessity of an appropriate designing which was used to be done manually now a days can be done accurately with necessary information like repeat size, number of color etc. with the help of Photoshop.

    Computer Aided Design (CAD): CAD is an electronic system which is used for designing new products or part of a product or altering the existing products or replacing the entire product done manually. CAD is used by the designer to design different geometric shapes with the help of graphics software. The CAD system has been built up from the Graphical User Interface with NURBS geometry and boundary representation data via a geometric modeling kernel. The graphics system provided by the CAD allows designers to create electronic images that can be portrayed into two- or three-dimensional solid component which can be rotated or scaled or transformed as it is viewed.

    Screen preparation: In the past the screen preparation was a quite a difficult task and was time consuming as well and accuracy was not achieved. Now a day’s glass fiber used as screen, and Galvano, liquor screen etc. made by computer assistance.

    Printing process: Digital textile printing, often referred to as direct to garment printing, DTG printing, and digital garment printing is a process of printing on textiles and garments using specialized or modified inkjet technology. Inkjet printing on fabric is also possible with an inkjet printer by using fabric sheets with a removable paper backing. Today major inkjet technology manufacturers can offer specialized products designed for direct printing on textiles, not only for sampling but also for bulk production. Burnout effect can be brought or plasma technology, laser technology can be also used for printing.

    Process management in wet processing:

    Computer Integrated manufacturing (CIM) uses computers to control the entire production process that involves engineering, production, marketing and all the support functions of a manufacturing enterprise. To eliminate the wastage, basic manufacturing functions as well as materials handling and inventory control can be simulated by computers. Nowadays there are many simulation software’s available.

    The elements of CIM system include manufacturing planning and control, manufacturing engineering, manufacturing processes and indirect elements such as sales order processing and finance and accounting. Manufacturing planning and control includes shop floor control, inventory control etc. Manufacturing engineering includes CAD/CAM, CAPP etc. Manufacturing process includes robots, material handling systems etc.

    Computer Aided Manufacturing: 

    This is the component of the CIM that directly deals with manufacturing operations. The computer systems are used by the manufacturers because they are accurate and also easily adaptable. They also provide easy access to data storage and cost-effective, high-quality production. CAM makes use of the computer-based software tools to assist the engineers for manufacturing or prototyping the product components.
    • Computer helps to compute how long a machine will work and what would be the amount of production that the machine will give by that time.
    • During the manufacturing there are automatic system which can identify the fault in process and can guide to solve the problems.

    Computer Aided Process Planning: 

    As process planning involves determining sequence of individual manufacturing operations needed to produce a given part or product, CAPP must be capable of understanding and analyzing the characteristics of the part of a product, possessing multiple knowledge about the tools and their characteristics, possess the capability of analyzing the inter dependencies between the part, the process involved, quality of the product and cost of the product.

    Overall Process Monitoring & Managing:

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP):

    ERP is the latest high-end solution provided by information technology for business application. Globalization has led to increase in competition and quality awareness and therefore it has become very important for the textile industry of Bangladesh to integrate itself with information technology to survive. To sustain competitive advantage, companies must re-examine and fine-tune their business processes to deliver high quality goods at very low costs. ERP is an integrated system that allows information to enter at a single point in process & updates a single shared database for all functions that directly or indirectly depend on this information. 

    ERP solutions came into existence in corporate world due to various problems faced in Management Information System (MIS), Integrated Information System (IIS), Executive Information System (EIS), Corporate Information System (CIS), Enterprise-Wide System (EWS), and Material Requirement Planning (MRP), Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II). This paper deals with the functions of ERP, Necessity, and benefits of ERP system. Challenges of aligning ERP with textile processes, taxonomy of textile ERP system, Development of ERP system, Existing ERP systems, ERP system providers, ERP system Implementation, simply to understand - ERP system organizes all of the companies information into one centralized system, which is always available.

    Conclusion:

    People make mistakes – computers don’t; this is the main theme or reason that textile industries must use the assistance of computer, to have better and proper way of production. The use of computer is the demand of the developed technologies. In the last couple of decades, automation has taken place in all the processes involving textile manufacturing i.e., cotton ginning, spinning, weaving, and wet processing and even to some extent in garment making, resulting in enormous gains in productivity and efficiency.
    • In our wet processing sector of textile, it is very important to have well prepared/pre-treated fabric which is aided by the application of computer more precisely.
    • Another most important and can be called as the main part of dying process is to match the color or to have appropriate shade of color which also assisted by computer e.g. data color, spectrophotometer etc.
    • And at last, assuring the quality of materials also done by computer.

    Writing courtesy:
    Engr. Sazzad Ahmed
    Department of Textile Engineering
    Daffodil International University

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